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            古代的飛鴿傳書是真的嗎飛鴿傳書靠譜嗎

            時間:2019-03-23 21:42:35編輯:梓嵐

            我們看過很多反映古代歷史軍事題材的電視劇,都有“飛鴿傳書”的鏡頭:某個將軍或者大俠站在室外,接著一只信鴿飛落到他手上。他從信鴿的腳上取下一根小竹管,打開小竹管,獲得情報。接著,又寫一封信放進鴿子腿上的竹管里,把信息傳遞回去。這就是有名的“飛鴿傳書”。

            那么,古代是不是用這種方式傳遞軍情的呢?

            一、電視劇中用“飛鴿傳書”傳遞軍情有常識性錯誤

            第一個常識性錯誤,信鴿絕對不會落到某一個人的手里,尤其是將領(包括大俠)的手里。信鴿傳書的原理,是利用鴿子的歸巢性來實現的。

            古代的飛鴿傳書是真的嗎飛鴿傳書靠譜嗎

            要利用這個特性,需要有專門的人員,對鴿子進行飼養和訓練。這個飼養和訓練的人,絕對不是將軍和大俠,他們也沒有空。所以,鴿子只能回到它的巢里,絕不會落到將領的手上。

            第二個常識性錯誤,信鴿傳遞情報具有單向性。因為信鴿只記得它從小長大的那個巢,所以,它只可能從戰場上飛回來,不可能再返回去。有人說,可以換一只信鴿傳遞呀。這也是不行的。誰會把信鴿放在打仗的地方養,讓它歸巢回去呢?

            二、古代打仗中,用“飛鴿傳書”傳遞軍情不靠譜

            不靠譜的原因有三點:

            第一,軍情如火情,雖然鴿子確實能夠回巢,但是它什么時候回巢呢?會不會遇到雨就躲避一下?會不會遇到好吃的食物,忙著吃,變慢了回家的速度?如果不是很著急的書信,這都沒有問題,但傳遞軍情,顯然不行。

            第二,信鴿在途中會不會遇到危險?比如被人射殺?被老鷹捕食等等。一旦遇到危害,傳遞準確性就會大打折扣。

            第三,這種傳遞方式會不會泄密?一旦鴿子被人捕獲,軍事秘密就容易泄露出去。有人說,可以設置密碼,敵人無法破譯。但是,假設敵人把信鴿腿上的情報給換了,讓信鴿帶著假情報回去,那不是會釀成大錯嗎?

            古代的飛鴿傳書是真的嗎飛鴿傳書靠譜嗎

            第三、古代戰爭中很少有利用信鴿傳遞軍情成功的記載

            古代有很多關于利用信鴿傳信的記載,比如唐代的《開元天寶遺事》中記載宰相張九齡少年時“家養群鴿”,用鴿子與親戚友人通信,并稱鴿子稱為“飛奴”。另外,《唐國史外》記載航海者用鴿子送信:“舶發之后,海路必養白鴿為信,舶設,則鴿雖數千里,亦能歸也”《酉陽雜俎》記載:“鴿能飛行數千里,輒放一只至家,以為平安信”所有這些,都是說的鴿子在通信中的作用。

            但是,用信鴿傳遞軍情的非常少。我查了很多的資料,發現所有信鴿在戰爭中發揮作用的,其實并不是傳遞情報。這里選兩個最有名的來說明。

            比如,《齊東野語》記載,公元1128年,南宋大將軍張浚視察部下曲端的營地時,看見曲端營地里無人,很不高興。于是曲端放出一只鴿子,很快一隊人馬就來了。張浚很驚奇,說想看所有部隊。于是曲端又放出5只鴿子,真的所有軍隊都到了。不過,很顯然,這個信鴿并不是傳遞情報,而是起到傳令兵的作用。

            古代的飛鴿傳書是真的嗎飛鴿傳書靠譜嗎

            再比如,1041年,宋軍與西夏軍作戰,西夏軍在好水川周圍設下埋伏,并在好水川里用泥土做籠子,把很多鴿子養在里面。宋軍聽到泥籠子里面撲騰,覺得很奇怪,拍開泥籠子。結果很多鴿子飛出來,西夏軍接到信號,包圍過來,宋軍大敗。不過,這里鴿子也只是信號彈一樣的作用,并不是傳遞軍情。

            事實上,古代傳遞軍情,更靠譜的還是烽火與驛站,信鴿的作用并不大。

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