• <rt id="16166"></rt>
      1. <form id="16166"></form>
          <progress id="16166"><optgroup id="16166"><li id="16166"></li></optgroup></progress>

          1. <li id="16166"></li>
          2. 歡迎訪問中國歷史網!微信公眾號:

            古代的飛鴿傳書是真的嗎飛鴿傳書靠譜嗎

            時間:2019-03-23 21:42:35編輯:梓嵐

            我們看過很多反映古代歷史軍事題材的電視劇,都有“飛鴿傳書”的鏡頭:某個將軍或者大俠站在室外,接著一只信鴿飛落到他手上。他從信鴿的腳上取下一根小竹管,打開小竹管,獲得情報。接著,又寫一封信放進鴿子腿上的竹管里,把信息傳遞回去。這就是有名的“飛鴿傳書”。

            那么,古代是不是用這種方式傳遞軍情的呢?

            一、電視劇中用“飛鴿傳書”傳遞軍情有常識性錯誤

            第一個常識性錯誤,信鴿絕對不會落到某一個人的手里,尤其是將領(包括大俠)的手里。信鴿傳書的原理,是利用鴿子的歸巢性來實現的。

            古代的飛鴿傳書是真的嗎飛鴿傳書靠譜嗎

            要利用這個特性,需要有專門的人員,對鴿子進行飼養和訓練。這個飼養和訓練的人,絕對不是將軍和大俠,他們也沒有空。所以,鴿子只能回到它的巢里,絕不會落到將領的手上。

            第二個常識性錯誤,信鴿傳遞情報具有單向性。因為信鴿只記得它從小長大的那個巢,所以,它只可能從戰場上飛回來,不可能再返回去。有人說,可以換一只信鴿傳遞呀。這也是不行的。誰會把信鴿放在打仗的地方養,讓它歸巢回去呢?

            二、古代打仗中,用“飛鴿傳書”傳遞軍情不靠譜

            不靠譜的原因有三點:

            第一,軍情如火情,雖然鴿子確實能夠回巢,但是它什么時候回巢呢?會不會遇到雨就躲避一下?會不會遇到好吃的食物,忙著吃,變慢了回家的速度?如果不是很著急的書信,這都沒有問題,但傳遞軍情,顯然不行。

            第二,信鴿在途中會不會遇到危險?比如被人射殺?被老鷹捕食等等。一旦遇到危害,傳遞準確性就會大打折扣。

            第三,這種傳遞方式會不會泄密?一旦鴿子被人捕獲,軍事秘密就容易泄露出去。有人說,可以設置密碼,敵人無法破譯。但是,假設敵人把信鴿腿上的情報給換了,讓信鴿帶著假情報回去,那不是會釀成大錯嗎?

            古代的飛鴿傳書是真的嗎飛鴿傳書靠譜嗎

            第三、古代戰爭中很少有利用信鴿傳遞軍情成功的記載

            古代有很多關于利用信鴿傳信的記載,比如唐代的《開元天寶遺事》中記載宰相張九齡少年時“家養群鴿”,用鴿子與親戚友人通信,并稱鴿子稱為“飛奴”。另外,《唐國史外》記載航海者用鴿子送信:“舶發之后,海路必養白鴿為信,舶設,則鴿雖數千里,亦能歸也”《酉陽雜俎》記載:“鴿能飛行數千里,輒放一只至家,以為平安信”所有這些,都是說的鴿子在通信中的作用。

            但是,用信鴿傳遞軍情的非常少。我查了很多的資料,發現所有信鴿在戰爭中發揮作用的,其實并不是傳遞情報。這里選兩個最有名的來說明。

            比如,《齊東野語》記載,公元1128年,南宋大將軍張浚視察部下曲端的營地時,看見曲端營地里無人,很不高興。于是曲端放出一只鴿子,很快一隊人馬就來了。張浚很驚奇,說想看所有部隊。于是曲端又放出5只鴿子,真的所有軍隊都到了。不過,很顯然,這個信鴿并不是傳遞情報,而是起到傳令兵的作用。

            古代的飛鴿傳書是真的嗎飛鴿傳書靠譜嗎

            再比如,1041年,宋軍與西夏軍作戰,西夏軍在好水川周圍設下埋伏,并在好水川里用泥土做籠子,把很多鴿子養在里面。宋軍聽到泥籠子里面撲騰,覺得很奇怪,拍開泥籠子。結果很多鴿子飛出來,西夏軍接到信號,包圍過來,宋軍大敗。不過,這里鴿子也只是信號彈一樣的作用,并不是傳遞軍情。

            事實上,古代傳遞軍情,更靠譜的還是烽火與驛站,信鴿的作用并不大。

            3分快3平台3分快3主页3分快3网站3分快3官网3分快3娱乐 www.2997773.com | 23599c.com | www.964808.com | www.2418e.com | 69522v.com | www.hg0770.com | www.08588t.com | 3678nnn.com | www.yh558866.com | www.444086.com | 2jsqqq.com | www.65066ff.com | 4647k.com | bifa.cm | www.938690.com | 64898f.com | www.3236544.com | www.77210f.com | 3844mm.com | www.45992c.com | www.791397.com | 112q.net | www.799666j.com | www.370833.com | 66300.net | www.79095g.com | 2698s.com | www.00829q.com | www.083wy.com | 8988s.com | www.5180889.com | 7792o.com | www.808xpj.com | www.33588b.com | 4255gg.com | www.06617b.com | 2546g.com | www.33384066.com | www.911710.com | 8547u.com | www.88325q.com | 3552a.com | www.8804jj.com | www.755806.com | 50128a.com | www.68568b.com | xpj11002.com | www.4546300.com | 1408v.com | www.111ee9.com | 5533412.com | www.7736l.cc | 89892pp.com | www.85770m.com | www.2875i.com | 55818y.com | www.82894.com | 4445.ag | www.55070j.com | 7003aa.com | www.111153.com | 5002xxx.com | www.0270k.com | 4165a.com | www.12136n.com | rauuu.com | www.5099qq.com | 11005i.com | www.63877n.com | www.7415rr.com | w7770.com | www.04567q.com | 48886508.com | www.ag5555.com | 4541o.com | 1985555.com | lehu556.com | www.949430.com | www.xh5111.com | www.602469.com | www.bl45.com | www.80065o.com | www.long116.com | www.1855.cc | 45637m.com | www.51515x.com | 55betbet365.com | www.599160.com | www.0805e.com | dfs234.com | www.79500h.com | 518cp88.com | www.73990l.com | aobo26.com | www.1222ac.com | www.sun8558.com | www.112028.com | www.hg8201.com | 0652v.com | www.490803.com | 00048.com | www.kc19.com | www.88msa.com | 80892rr.com | www.33678jj.com | 97000.cc | www.k63568.com | 66671t.com | www.85770j.com | www.jl708.com | 345678.com | www.998855d.com | www.834546.com | www.50026s.com | www.21365gg.com | 1145.com | www.339968.com | www.45598f.com | 953644.com | 22pp145.com | www.8667p.com | www.20199ii.com | 59889n.com | 7196a.com | www.13633.cc | www.c44hh.com | 650pj.com | yhningxia.vip | www.92092.cc | www.bwinyz42.com | www.3658766.com | 3678ooo.com | www.97655i.com | www.8011868.com | www.93818.com | evere168.cn | 66225156.com | www.3890d.com | www.9hg6668.com | www.ab142.com | 9971009.com | www.196081.com | www.hbet98.com | www.00868.com | ppp7570.com | v1781.com | www.sjgc9.com | www.00773y.com | www.3657z.com | 4955u.com | hg11w.com | www.19kpl.com | www.04567z.com | www.yinhecc22.com | vns00dd.com | 8884661.com | www.33112q.com | www.75jsjs.com | 22293232.com | 8040.com | 664975.com | www.hy5955.com | www.suncity758.com | 883399g.com | www.303861.com | www.52062w.com | www.358012.com | 7599x.com | www.219077.com | www.3775l.com | www.hg1688.biz | kkk67890.com | www.43131k.com | www.366908.com | www.ag4898.com | 06006.com | www.2109v.com | www.56655y.com | 3379f.com | 63305.com | www.12455h.com | www.58665c.com | www.00217g.com | 0dc.com | www.84gcw.com | www.5049g.com | www8827.com | 8159ooo.cc | www.35155w.com | www.66am4455.com | 61652a.com | 20188k.com | www.zmfqp.net | www.vns2500.com | 22qq8331.com | 6423m.com | www.143552.com | www.hg6648.com | www.84786.com | 1018xpj.com | www.33598b.com | www.00772e.com | www.777444r.com | 3g88.com | 5504v.com | www.526087.com | www.30350w.com | www.cai73cc.com | 123hwjx.com | pjbuyuw.com | www.716726.com | www.ra017.com | www.87708b.com | www.z948z.com | www.3170002.com | www.tushan08.com | www.033033e.com | jx2400.com | 158808.com | 78115500.com | 08778m.com | 681bet.com | www.166127.com | www.810872.com | www.3552z.com | www.25809.com | www.52062v.com | www.06820r.com | www.caipiao33c.com | www.6655288.com | www.433msc.com | www.6491t.com | gbhs33.com | 73055m.com | 22098n.com | 15876.vip | hj4566com | 11005e.com | 6175c.com | 1669y.com | fhcp127.com | www.233104.com | www.912454.com | www.9478b.com | www.35918y.com | www.99677r.com | www.954321a.com | www.hg594.com | www.86339i.com | www.79095a.com | www.bwinyz26.com | www.45598y.com | www.cn365h.com | www.4078r.com | www.4972x.com | www.hndf333.com | www.911.hk | www.285280.com | www.hg8326.com | www.33224066.com | www.81321a.com | www.gf949888.com | www.m.hjjb29.wang | www.j3577.com | lehu556.com | 4488a.com | 1634v.com | wb8.com | www.506273.com | www.33588n.com | www.ej158.com | www.x063801.com | www.00773j.com | www.xg536.com | bwin8bb.com | www.99788h.com | www.3978u.com | www.77801k.com | www.6666y.cc | www.653152.com | www.202403.com | jbb76.cc | 7346611.com | 7508q.com | 550111a.com | 6594bb.com | 预览2381.com | www.pjdc4488.com | www.3844qq.com | www.599248.com | www.blr730.com | www.373351.com | www.4996zk.com | www.4102s.com | www.bj2222.com | www.9818r.cc | www.541911.com | 2418.com | e14666.com | 28365.com | 6769.cc | mi527.com | 33318f.com | 61322222.com | 4546vip9.com | www.v771177.com | www.wwww.6230z.com | www.xpj2050.com | www.3691n.com | wpmtp.com | zz5144.com | 118888c.com | 01234uu.com | 2247mm.com | www.c50336.com | www.9374e.com | www.56520i.com | www.63877y.com | www.vns6266.com | www.4763006.com | 01266.com | www.6666wnsr.com | www.36389k.com | www.2404000.com | www.83008d.com | www.331333.com | www.081168.net | www.9737ee.me | www.48330j.com | www.2cpb.com | vip2127.com | 52688c.com | 365vip800.cc | www.hg8786.org | hy5900.com | 7t3777.com | www.pj4858.com | www.646456.com | www.79095b.com | www.26299j.com | www.587244.com | 11005y.com | 40033ttt.com | www.6033s.com | www.199424.com | www.yzcp2026.com | www.ylylc09.com | www.c3004.com | 0289t.com | 28839s.com | 2268.com | www.kk4666.com | www.xpj3133.net | www.500vp.com | 2546n.com | t82365.com | www.1818618.com | www.581555.com | www.blr5544.com | www.ck7686.com | hg2017.cc | 51133y.com | www.3399365.com | www.271998.com | www.ya2019r.com | www.361550.com | 5856k.com | 2934a.com | www.hg7650.com | www.80030077.com | www.163734.com | y7454.com | www.pj5333.com | www.3846p.com | www.68568m.com | 1483n.com | hd71966.com | www.38778d.com | www.v32031.com | www.915422.com | 1916q.com | 3033s.com | 8905v.com | www.033033v.com | www.g44c.com | www.6482.com | www.828165.com | www.250757.com | 77606u.com | 8742u.com | www.15b19.net | www.68993276.com | www.51515o.com | 4461a.com | www.xin888666.com | www.9997028.com | www.770640.com | vip169.com | www.976000.com | www.u3410.com | www.599047.com | q45638.com | www.32666x.com | www.gx58qp.com | 1859005.com | 01885e.com | www.yh391.com | www.995n.net | www.am13579.com | www.770816.com | b99345.am | www.55268ww.com | www.456.tm | wb8.com | 228888b.com | www.2945h.com | www.ztc7.com | 1294i.cc | www.hg2282.com | www.44730.com | vncseojs.com | BY30838.com | www.04567u.com | www.685548.com | 3482r.com | www.28758e.com | www.9170116.com | www.62118b.com | p888p888.com | 52688i.com | www.821558.com | www.8882hj.com | www.987443.com | 5309i.com | 3136yy.com | www.jty849.com | www.288hc.com | aobo45.com | www.626022.com | www.50024k.com | 20188m.com | www.2078a.com | www.7239o.com | 07789.com | www.300msc.com | www.993957.com | 9679a.com | www.vns8895.com | www.288021.com | 61326699.com | www.8694t.com | www.tyc44222.com | 201855.com | www.b32126.cc | www.81233cc.com | ll00558.com | www.gf949888.com | www.895030.com | 66671l.com | www.138578.com | www.105180.com | 51133p.com | www.hg531.com | www.9155c.com | 4066v.com | www.lfg222.com | www.hg860033.com | 718012.com | www.2090977.com | www.66332w.com | 30179933.com | www.a81m.cc | www.217380.com | 8901o.com | www.1466t.com | 40033g.com | www.44799.com | www.606694.com | mgm3242k.com | www.hg27588.com | 91019b.com | www.723013.com | 86611t.com | www.175702.com | 33382tt.com | www.pjshandong.com | www.hg8268.com | sbd5551.com | www.168005.com | www.101377.com | www.55hggj.com | www.61500.cc | 777818b.com | www.4440yl.com | dd63777.com | www.10mscc.com | www.50052u.com | www.788698.com | www.gy1.com | aa2205.com | www.717456.com | 11989b.com | www.y18001.com | www.9818j.cc | 444v44.com | www.aobo12345.com | 7196n.com | www.mg7088.com | www.530951.com | www.a2a999.cc | www.3668aa.com | 8030l.com | www.0270k.com | tz22888.com | www.06660.com | 4955p.com | www.32638.com | 11018y.com | www.38138d.com | 1463m.com | www.179022.com | 9030n.com | 62222t.com | www.1754x.com | 52688p.com | www.ggs.99233s.com | 074634.com | www.js5599.vip | 51133hh.com | www.df6644.com | www.377183.com | www.agg8887.com | www.6768997.com | blr365365.com | www.700555.com | 0234l.com | www.hg12358.com | www.44118w.com | 0907.ws | www.36607a.com | www.139630.com | www.g88998.com | www.73166g.com | yhyunnan.vip | www.509291.com | 6487ppp.com | www.ribo23.cc | 2jsqqq.com | www.41518q.com | bl778877.com | www.912484.com | www.3459j.com | www.176225.com | www.20288w.com | 61610029.com | www.l3065.com | 2709n.com | www.068526.com | wn99gg.com | www.55060v.com | 7726iii.com | www.5506132.com | www.652851.com | www.68610022.com | 500000593.com | www. | 7779p.cc | www.68993273.com | i35151.com | www.5ecp.com | www.4107e.com | 30019z.com | www.aobo12345.com | bwin6804.net | www.256095.com | 9995w.cc | www.544bb.cc | www.86067.com | www.998294.com | qy192.vip | www.33997k.com | feicai0415.com | www.899465.com | www.1294xi.com | ppp8827.com | www.vnsr938.com | 91999.com | www.771501.com | www.v6060.com | 69446677.com | www.xpj77123.com | w9w8w7.com | www.506971.com | www.555030.com | 7xh.vip | www.73990q.com | 4022oo.com | www.6613611.com | www.672766.com | 4518.com | www.50026p.com | www.6491w.com | bc21888.com | www.4996xt.com | 20055533.com | www.763829.com | www.25288o.com | x33j.vip | www.d58.com | 44775156.com | www.33ms33.com | www.083016.com | www.ra0008.com | 9646s.com | www.36581111.com | www.76060g.com | e61653.com | www.pj9080.com | www.jsw66.cc | 2998a.com | www.52062z.com | 87578.com | 0015ll.com | www.556537.com | 3136xx.com | 0008c.com | www.35252v.com | mi789.vip | www.7920b.com | 57157g.com | www.680352.com | www.xpj9710.com | 8722kkkk.com | www.hm2333.com | www.842211.com | ss4119.com | www.bet63f.com | 3122pp.com | www.s98478.com | 2247aa.com | www.595411.com | www.as0003.com | wzyxwz.com | www.310935.com | 00kk8331.com | 2618t.com | www.4440yl.com | www.9374q.com | w9625.com | www.15355f.com | www.6786j.com | aaa67890.com | www.533265.com | www.cn365u.com | wx3399.com | www.663566.com | www.2850899.com | 28824a.com | www.8d818.com | www.yh3682.com | 4152m.com | www.466060.com | www.cn365m.com | www.9464hh.com | LXYL362.com | www.22503.cc | www.559955.com | lymm188.com | 99151h.com | www.0601l.com | www.76543x.com | o86811com | www.87668l.com | www.57799vv.com | 1597.com | www.51331h.com | www.js6767r.com | 2349003.com | 4636633.com | www.96386f.com | www.pj5577.com | 58533333.com | c388o.com | www.8499i.com | www.qj2.co | 3534a.com | www.730678.com | www.cc1916.com | dhy.cc | www.217630.com | www.444999qipai.com | www.3569c.com | 2400xl.com | hag8326.com | www.3668n.com | www.19019l.com | 923970.com | xhtd1634.com | www.ljw035.com | 5003xx.com | www.60108d.com | www.56569.com | 6396k.com | www.706515.com | www.hg8zz.com | 123456aa.cc | www.36788i.com | www.550021l.com | www.a7817.vip | 3049s.com | 76543d.com | www.584911.com | www.07679n.com | www.s22678.com | 2381004.com | 1489h.com | www.799200.com | www.3239888.com | 33318t.com | www.29277e.com | www.938690.com | www.70000.com | vv3405.com | 5856u.com | www.706515.com | www.7240t.com | www.000amdc.com | 121ccc.com | 4541l.com | 52599h.com | www.hy5505.com | www.28281app.com | 2019dd.cc | 15a13.net | www.588229.com | www.1234168.com | www.4853.com | www.yh6679.com | a444000.com | d2127002.com | 97987-5.com | www.zcwf9.com | www.12345601.cc | www.105546.com | 2373n.com | 23800s.com | www.701549.com | www.5099xx.com | www.456qqq.com | 2767b.com | 40033aaa.com | 58588r.com | www.632599.com | www.6653c.com | www.637968.com | www.2544k9.com | www.hg9922.org | 3846b.com | www.388510.com | www.9321n.com | 1h-7.cc | 69111f.com | 5001k.com | www.0099wd.com | www.000amdc.com | www.hg4498.com | yth008.net | 2934q.com | www.375916.com | www.8667l.com | www.81608p.com | www.38138d.com | www.105546.com | www.55155h.com | b4647.com | 61326622.com | www.380068.com | www.vns98.me | www.gdnmi.com | www.1340o.com | www.amjs601.com | feicai0972.com | 99332007.com | 38365d.com | 2214uu.com | 3435x.com | www.345839.com | www.4923b.com | www.751cp3.com | www.ag3131g.com | 3258z.com | 3644f.com | 3568qq.com | www.083036.com | www.938537.com | www.98528e.com | www.5647ii.com | www.kuaibet.com | www.3459a.com | 3685t.com | n1915.com | vip201678.com | mobile.baidu.com | www.168212.com | www.602470.com | www.938518.com | www.987jc.com | www.9356y.com | 496qq.com | 80850v.com | aa5443.com | ms38648mm.cc | www.040452.com | www.458689.com | www.773925.com | www.ihg5599.com | www.20199uu.com | www.25288j.com | js89k.vip | 2146r.com | 55797f.com | wb330.com | 3467l.am | 61653e.com | 3404m.cc | 2381xxx.com | www.655096.com | www.4809z.com | www.1429c1.com | www.9570116.com | www.3188888.com | www.829797c.com | www.hg8.com | www.n69096.com | www.p7764.com | www.38138p.com | www.2945a.com | www.wsvip0.com | www.998762.com | www.4972kk.com | www.00829f.com | www.88837x.com | www.xy466.com | www.yabet365.com | www.3691t.com | www.129u.com | www.998855p.com | www.789668.net | www.xpj3210.com | www.81306a.com | www.0686999.com | www.8494d.com | www.sb84.com | www.hg302.com | www.31399ee.com | www.bjd999.com | www.5099cc.com | www.9737xx.com | www.hq5177.com | www.nbe666.com | www.sun368.com | www.8jjzyz.com | www.8967i.com | www.http://09991.com | www.63606c.com | www.k94600.com | www.141615.com | www.hgdc800.com | www.28000q.com | www.xj6006.com | www.1754d.com | www.6678566.com | www.50080k.com | www.933777a.com | www.348689.com | 90733.com | 8520q.com | www.77114i.com | 17yy.com | j15.com | 66783.com | pj7702.com | 64111m.com | www.23426b.com | 5855kk.com | 8028522.com | www.5446j.com | www.997287.com | www.16878q.com | www.950665.com | www.099210.com | fff01234.com | asddz.com | 89892ff.com | 4340r.com | 36406666.com | 1098.com | www.09569y.com | www.009789.com | www.sha2288.com | www.0082737.com | www.4996fj.com | www.u8999.com | www.81678m.com | www.743633.com | 3222e.cc | www.808523.com | www.684335.com | w9155.com | 3778rr.com | 3344000.com | www.pjhebei.com | www.2846z.com | www.sun5507.com | www.y4042.com | www.89599a.com | www.55717h.com | www.lczg4.com | 36508w.com | yhguangdong.vip | js2.cc | 77332007.com | www.h067.com | www.34656.com | www.7225t.com | www.36788p.com | www.310195.com | www.a2a111.cc | 34c35.com | 1606766.com | www.7435c.com | www.88837q.com | www.yk222b.com | www.4331m.com | www.810609.com | 56988h.com | 99589q.net | 2677ttt.com | www.886601.com | www.bm246.com | www.185141.com | www.20016.cc | 690824.com | 86226t.com | www.ra8878.com | www.433345.com | www.t2894.com | www.762760.com | www.548211.com | 10050533.com | 80368l.com | a757055.com | 7610.com | www.700555.hk | www.960023.com | www.c6569.com | www.010585.com | 5005i.com | a5429.com | www.9679h.com | www.f32031.com | www.igcp2.com | 0208vv.com | 5856ff.com | 5856n.com | www.yingle33.com | www.77055.com | 888.tf | 3656vv.com | hg9695.com | www.792suncity.com | www.hgdc100.com | www.977389.com | asddz.com | 5856n.com | www.2377msc.com | www.3w26.com | www.74972.com | www.376531.com | 87667.com | www.wnsr858.com | www.10999v.com | www.2934u.com | 64111g.com | 00774bb.com | www.jh879.com | www.00773c.com | www.c6002.com | 8040.am | 66662007.com | www.pj9567.com | www.bwinyz09.com | www.730625.com | 8535.com | www.76543y.com | www.4972u.com | www.68568d.com | 2543.am | 2306k.com | www.998855z.com | www.999xm.cc | 35442000.com | 1104007.com | www.2598567.com | www.99094p.com | 60959999.com | 22kk8331.com | www.cs55222.com | www.jl708.com | www.tyc19988898.com | 809h50.com | 2306r.com | www.twcp00.com | www.078wy.com | 1665j.com | 97297i.com | www.cn365v.com | www.599049.com | 4052n.com | 7744iii.com | www.e32939.com | www.712012.com | p01234.com | www.8804567.com | www.70976.net | www.5095n.com | agaa29.com | www.m30226.com | www.js1047.com | 7792h.com | 61325544.com | www.hga8080.com | www.68365m.com | 5lc8.com | 21866r.com | www.71071b.com | www.ya278.com | 2613h.com | www.76543j.com | www.ihg5599.com | vn8940c.com: | c4255.com | www.4938s.com | www.376500hd.com | bet365ok04.com | 44mm8331.com | www.a9151e.com | www.901025.com | am126.cc | www.5504r.com | www.qmkl0.com | drcp222.com | www.85770a.com | www.ribo12.cc | 5369i.com | www.gh0087.com | www.4212w.com | www.3416m.com | 4776611.com | www.0333444.com | www.84499s.com | 9737ii.me | www.365109d.com | www.99677k.com | 00773z.com | www.2078n.com | www.9818t.cc | nn1915.com | www.468546.com | www.43818x.com | 6245t.com | www.kj4949.com | www.630155.com | 4107m.com | www.508345.com | www.603854.com | 8036p.com | www.js89m.vip | www.196346.com | 3522jj.com |