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            探索非洲族群沖突的歷史原因

            時間:2019-07-05 14:45:47編輯:佚名

              本報華盛頓7月2日電 (記者王悠然)一項最新研究顯示,后殖民時代非洲國家的族群沖突很多根源于前殖民時代的“族群國家”。撒哈拉以南非洲國家自20世紀五六十年代獨立運動后,爆發了多起族群暴力沖突事件,造成大量人口傷亡,阻礙地區經濟發展。

              本報華盛頓7月2日電 (記者王悠然)一項最新研究顯示,后殖民時代非洲國家的族群沖突很多根源于前殖民時代的“族群國家”。

              撒哈拉以南非洲國家自20世紀五六十年代獨立運動后,爆發了多起族群暴力沖突事件,造成大量人口傷亡,阻礙地區經濟發展。然而非洲主要族群中的近80%從未參與過任何國內戰爭。為什么內亂和暴動在某些非洲國家頻繁發生?不同于許多學者將視線聚焦于后殖民時代,美國羅徹斯特大學政治學助理教授杰克·佩恩(Jack Paine)認為,應在更長的歷史時段內尋找原因。據該校官網近日報道,佩恩在新研究《非洲種族暴力“前殖民時代”國家遺留的毀滅性影響》中分析了非洲國家從獨立后至2013年的內戰和暴亂數據并發現,在歐洲殖民者到來之前已經由某一(當地)族群統治的非洲國家,即族群國家在獨立后爆發暴力沖突的概率顯著高于殖民前沒有統治族群的國家。

              佩恩介紹說,大約在1884年以前,非洲的政治組織形式很多樣,有無國家社會,如肯尼亞的馬賽人(Maasai)族群;也有君主制國家,如位于今貝寧境內的達荷美王國(Kingdom of Dahomey),其中的中央集權國家的暴力活動加劇族際不平等。1900—1945年殖民高峰時期,族群國家中曾經占統治地位的族群在殖民地社會等級制度中地位上升,成為殖民者的天然盟友。由于借助當地已有的政治秩序來進行殖民統治能減少殖民者的治理成本,英國殖民者在加納、烏干達、尼日利亞、贊比亞等國尤其偏好采用這種間接治理策略。因此,差異鮮明的族群認同造就了權利地位不同的亞群體,其中的特權群體不愿與其他群體共同進行政治管理,族群國家缺乏建立族際政治聯盟的傳統和進行協商談判的能力。

              鑒于此,在獨立后,非洲國家領導人認為,與反對派結成聯合政府可能導致反對派勢力增強以致發動政變,因此選擇將反對派排除在政府重要部門之外,這反而刺激了反對派從政府外部掀起叛亂,引燃暴力沖突。本報華盛頓7月2日電 (記者王悠然)一項最新研究顯示,后殖民時代非洲國家的族群沖突很多根源于前殖民時代的“族群國家”。

              撒哈拉以南非洲國家自20世紀五六十年代獨立運動后,爆發了多起族群暴力沖突事件,造成大量人口傷亡,阻礙地區經濟發展。然而非洲主要族群中的近80%從未參與過任何國內戰爭。為什么內亂和暴動在某些非洲國家頻繁發生?不同于許多學者將視線聚焦于后殖民時代,美國羅徹斯特大學政治學助理教授杰克·佩恩(Jack Paine)認為,應在更長的歷史時段內尋找原因。據該校官網近日報道,佩恩在新研究《非洲種族暴力“前殖民時代”國家遺留的毀滅性影響》中分析了非洲國家從獨立后至2013年的內戰和暴亂數據并發現,在歐洲殖民者到來之前已經由某一(當地)族群統治的非洲國家,即族群國家在獨立后爆發暴力沖突的概率顯著高于殖民前沒有統治族群的國家。

              佩恩介紹說,大約在1884年以前,非洲的政治組織形式很多樣,有無國家社會,如肯尼亞的馬賽人(Maasai)族群;也有君主制國家,如位于今貝寧境內的達荷美王國(Kingdom of Dahomey),其中的中央集權國家的暴力活動加劇族際不平等。1900—1945年殖民高峰時期,族群國家中曾經占統治地位的族群在殖民地社會等級制度中地位上升,成為殖民者的天然盟友。由于借助當地已有的政治秩序來進行殖民統治能減少殖民者的治理成本,英國殖民者在加納、烏干達、尼日利亞、贊比亞等國尤其偏好采用這種間接治理策略。因此,差異鮮明的族群認同造就了權利地位不同的亞群體,其中的特權群體不愿與其他群體共同進行政治管理,族群國家缺乏建立族際政治聯盟的傳統和進行協商談判的能力。

              鑒于此,在獨立后,非洲國家領導人認為,與反對派結成聯合政府可能導致反對派勢力增強以致發動政變,因此選擇將反對派排除在政府重要部門之外,這反而刺激了反對派從政府外部掀起叛亂,引燃暴力沖突。

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