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          2. 歡迎訪問中國歷史網!微信公眾號:

            一條河流的歷史文化之秘

            時間:2019-07-05 14:44:44編輯:佚名

              剛剛四十出頭的青年作家徐則臣,可謂少年成名。他大約在20多歲時,就陸續在《收獲》《當代》《上海文學》這類主流文學期刊上發表小說,如《跑步穿過中關村》《如果大雪封門》《天上人間》等中短篇小說,筆者曾讀得如癡如醉。近10多年來,他以旺盛的精力,創作長篇小說《耶路撒冷》《午夜之門》《夜火車》等,每部長篇出手,都成為學者們樂于評論的文本。作為北大中文系出身的高材生,徐則臣的文風深沉厚重,與他的年齡極不相符。他最新出版的長篇小說《北上》,在文學世界中承載的文化、表達的思想,再一次走向新高度。

              《北上》是徐則臣潛心4年創作的長篇小說。這部小說格局廣闊舒展,氣韻沉雄,以歷史與現實兩條線索,講述了發生在京杭大運河上幾個家族之間的百年秘史。1901年,時局動蕩,整個中國大地風雨飄搖。為了尋找在八國聯軍侵華戰爭時期失蹤的弟弟馬福德,意大利旅行冒險家保羅·迪馬克以文化考察的名義來到了中國。這位意大利人崇敬他的前輩馬可·波羅,并對中國及大運河有著特殊的情感,故自名“小波羅”。

              小說主人公之一謝平遙作為翻譯,陪同小波羅走訪,并先后召集挑夫邵常來、船老大夏氏師徒各色人等一路相隨。他們從杭州、無錫出發,沿著京杭大運河一路北上。這一路,既是他們的學術考察之旅,也是他們對于知識分子身份和命運的反思之旅,同時,更是他們的尋根之旅。當他們抵達大運河的北端——北京通州時,小波羅因意外離世。同時,清政府下令停止漕運,運河的實質性衰落由此開始。百年后的2014年,中國各界重新展開了對于運河功能與價值的文化討論。當謝平遙的后人謝望和與當年先輩的后代陰差陽錯重新相聚時,各個運河人之間原來孤立的故事片段,拼接成了一部完整的敘事長卷。這一年,中國大運河項目成功入選世界文化遺產名錄。

              《北上》中的“北”,是地理之北,亦是文脈、精神之北。大水湯湯,溯流北上,小說跨越運河的歷史時空,探究普通民眾與中國的關系、知識分子與中國的關系、中國與世界的關系,探討大運河對于中國政治、經濟、地理、文化以及世道人心變遷的重要影響,書寫出百年來大運河的精神圖譜和一個民族的舊邦新命。從這個意義上看,大運河是中國的一面鏡子。作為中國地理南北貫通的大動脈,大運河千百年來如何滋養著一個古老的國度,又是如何培育了一代代獨特的中國人,在作品中亦有深刻的思索。

              徐則臣是有大氣象的作家。為了創作這部小說,這幾年,他有意識地把京杭大運河從南到北斷斷續續走了一遍,這一路曠日持久的田野調查,改變了他對運河的很多想法。曾經,他對運河不以為然,因為他少年時就在運河邊長大。后來見識增長了,對歷史文化有了更深的認識,對運河的看法也發生改變,他覺得自己有責任,為這條河流創作一部長篇小說。這些年來,他培養出了對運河的專門興趣,但凡涉及運河的影像、文字、研究乃至道聽途說的典故,他都認真地收集、揣摩,一點點地把運河放進了小說里。

              無論中西或古今,河流都與人類生活息息相關,不同文明文化形態的出現及其發展,都與河流產生過種種關聯。但是將河流作為小說寫作的主要對象,其實并不多見。上世紀80年代,張承志成名作——中篇小說《北方的河》,將黃河、無定河、湟水、永定河這4條北方的大河串聯起來,加上追憶中的新疆額爾齊斯河與夢想中的黑龍江,眾多北方河流在張承志情感奔涌的文字中迸發出雄健的氣質,眾河流淌的是中國文化的多重象征,無形中與當時的尋根文化思潮遙相呼應。如今,徐則臣的長篇小說《北上》,以30多萬字的篇幅,酣暢淋漓地寫一條河流,且是一條貫通南北、穿越歷史的京杭大運河。他筆下這條貫穿南北的歷史長河、人文長河,與張承志描寫的的北方大河全然不同,文化符號的象征性逐漸弱化,不再是張承志帶有力量的抒情,而是百余年前意大利兄弟倆各自穿河北上,所見所聞所親身經歷的中國。可以這么講,與其說這部小說是在寫京杭大運河,還不如說是通過運河講述百年中國社會變遷的磅礴歷史。

              歷史上,京杭大運河除了漕運功能外,還有軍事、水利、商業、文化、生態等諸多功能。不同時期,這些功能的作用和影響力有所差異。現在,作為世界文化遺產的京杭大運河,盡管軍事和對外交流的功能基本已經消亡,但是文化記憶、歷史見證、休閑旅游、生態環境功能不斷凸顯。在《北上》當中,徐則臣以一種比較的視野進行文學書寫,形成了中國與西方國家、傳統與現代、故事與圖像多重的比較視野,同時以20世紀諸多重大事件介入人物行動與命運中,使這部小說具有歷史的長度、題材的難度、藝術的厚度。坦率地講,在“70后”這一代作家的寫作中,歷史甚少成為其小說敘事的焦點,至多是敘事的背景。而徐則臣,以巨大的寫作勇氣,深入歷史深處,在這部小說中重塑了“70后”這一代作家的新形象。

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