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          2. 歡迎訪問中國歷史網!微信公眾號:

            【人物春秋】中國第一個為少數民族寫史的人是咱清河人

            時間:2019-06-21 08:10:00編輯:佚名

              “拓跋入中原,國分南北方,北朝十六國,南朝宋齊梁。”這是中國歷史朝代歌中的幾句。其中的“北朝十六國”時期指的是西晉亡后,晉室南渡,中原地區遂有以匈奴、鮮卑、羯、氐、羌等五個以胡人為主的游牧部落侵擾中原,先后建立割據政權,使中原大亂,史稱“五胡亂華”。其實在這個時期內的政權并非十六個,其大大小小有七八十個之多,因北魏史官崔鴻寫了一部名為《十六國春秋》的史書,所以這段歷史又稱之為“五胡十六國”、“十六國”等。

              崔鴻(478—525年),字彥鸞,北魏清河人,著名史學家。其伯父崔光是北魏著名的史學家,曾任著作郎,參與修撰北魏國史,一生大部分時間都在史職。崔鴻自小受其伯父的影響,勤奮好習、刻苦讀書,知識非常淵博,尤其在史學方面更是學識深厚。據《北史》記載:其“少好讀書,博綜經史”,以才學聞名。其“弱冠即有著述志”, 他的志向就是要修撰一部全面的、系統的記述十六國歷史的著作。

              崔鴻認為,自從西晉“八王之亂”之后,各國興替的歷史相當繁亂。雖然“所在稱兵,競自尊樹”,但“能建邦命氏成為戰國者,十有六家”。 他們雖然都是少數民族所建的政權,但也是這一時代的政治代表和象征,是中國歷史不可分割的一部分。而總結這一時代歷史的經驗和教訓,同樣具有十分重要的意義。雖然十六國各有國書,記載本國史事,但體例不同,詳略各異,不相統一。于是崔鴻立志要編撰出一部記錄這一時代的全史。

              景明元年(500年),崔鴻利用公余時間開始搜集整理十六國的舊史及相關資料。由于當時北魏剛遷都洛陽不久,各種書籍“率多分散”,他不得不多方搜求,尋查于公府,訪之于私藏。崔鴻為官清廉,積蓄不多,但他為了抄錄、搜集各國史料,幾乎竭盡了家產和俸祿,有時甚至連買筆墨紙張的錢都拿不出,平時生活十分艱樸。

              在該書的編寫過程中,崔鴻將所搜集的各國史書之外的資料與各國史書相核對,把虛妄不實、舛錯謬誤的部分進行刪除訂正,使之翔實準確,逐步“定為實錄”。之后,再將核考后的史實資料歸錄于各國史料篇目體系中。到正始三年(506年),《十六國春秋》中只剩下“蜀錄”沒有找到,其它的初稿已基本完成。他四處訪購《蜀書》,但久求不得,這項工作只能停滯下來。

              編寫此書是崔鴻私下進行的,他惟恐書中有不符合當朝典章和朝廷意圖之處,未敢宣行于世。然而,天下沒有不透風的墻,此事不知怎么就被宣武帝獲知,于是派人去向崔鴻索要書稿。崔鴻不敢抗旨,便將自己認為“不悖”當朝的部分書稿呈獻宣武帝御覽(因書中如實記載了北魏破燕軍,坑殺數萬降卒之事)。崔鴻趁機給皇帝上表,請求朝廷協助他搜尋《蜀書》。朝廷在資金和搜集資料方面的支持給崔鴻的書稿撰寫工作提供了幫助,到孝明帝正光三年(522年),終將這本稀有的《蜀書》找到。至此《十六國春秋》的全部史料已收齊,崔鴻又于公務之余埋頭撰寫,補寫了最后五卷。

              《十六國春秋》為紀傳體史書,是一部記述自西晉滅亡至北魏統一北方前,北方十六個政權興亡更替的斷代史。其體例比較完備,內容以各國國書為錄,主為紀,臣為傳,成書后共一百卷,另有序例一卷,年表一卷,共計一百零二卷。可惜這部書當時未有付梓,書稿只是藏在崔鴻的家中。崔鴻死后,孝莊帝永安年間,他的兒子崔子元又重新手抄了一部書稿獻給朝廷,藏于史館。

              《十六國春秋》是研究十六國史的重要文獻。后來,魏編寫《魏書》、唐朝編修《晉書》,都將此書作為重要參考資料。司馬光編修《資治通鑒》時也曾引用過。可惜這部書從北宋以后就散失了,目前存世的《十六國春秋》,是明萬歷年間出現的殘本。現行的輯本有兩種,一為明代屠僑孫等輯綴的《十六國春秋補遺輯佚》;一為清代湯球的《十六國春秋輯補》。

              《十六國春秋》不僅有寶貴的史料價值,而且在史學史上也具有特殊的意義,為北魏史、遼金史、元史、清史的撰寫樹立了典范,史稿雖散佚,其豐功永存。崔鴻,作為第一個為少數民族政權寫史的人,他把少數民族政權的歷史提高到正史地位,千百年來一直為人們所追念。

              本文為政務等機構在澎湃新聞上傳并發布,僅代表該機構觀點,不代表澎湃新聞的觀點或立場,澎湃新聞僅提供信息發布平臺。

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              我是多家高校、眾創空間的創業導師,關于企業融資、創新創業的問題,問我吧!

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