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          2. 歡迎訪問中國歷史網!微信公眾號:

            中國歷史上最漫長浩大的戰爭——足足打光了六代人積蓄的力量!

            時間:2019-06-18 00:54:02編輯:佚名

              中國歷史上最漫長浩大的戰爭——足足打光了六代人積蓄的力量!答案應該是漢匈之戰。

              我們通過漢匈之戰,主要需要反思的就是:為什么憑著經過六代繼續力量、韜光養晦發展的漢朝以及雄才偉略的漢武大帝,坐擁名將如衛青、霍去病、程不識、李廣之流,憑著歷史上最為強大的綜合力量,僅僅和人口是漢朝人口1/60的匈奴戰成平手?

              在西周末年,中原地區就受到少數民族的掠搶,犬戎族曾殺入西周都城鎬京,殺王掠財而去。這種狀況甚至可以再往前追溯:

              周昭王南伐荊楚“喪六師于漢”,周昭王也“南巡不反(返)。”——《竹書紀年·周紀》之后,周穆王“欲肆其心,周行天下”,結果導致“荒服者不至”——《史記·周本紀》

              到春秋戰國時,趙國就曾有效地防御與抵制少數民族入侵。秦時,大將蒙怡領兵30萬長年在北方防御,并在原來趙等國的長城之基礎上大規模修筑了新長城,長逾萬里。

              萬里長城與年400㎜降水量線吻合的相當好,在秦以后,由于北方土地逐漸的沙化,年400㎜降水量線㎜降水量線和萬里長城以北,降水量少,是天然的游牧場所,而在長城以南,則是漢民族為主的農耕區域。大約在秦始皇完成統一的同時期或稍后,匈奴在冒頓單于的領導下,也形成了空前的統一狀態。

              劉邦統一天下之后不久,曾被冒頓以近40萬騎兵圍困于平城,后僥幸脫圍,但情狀極其狼狽。此后非常長的時期內,漢對匈奴始終以屈卑的身份對待。在呂后執政時,即使面對當時單于的公開侮辱性書信也沒敢貿然發作。

              對漢朝來說,不敢公開與匈奴對抗,除了當時政權結構沒有完全準備好(主要有大量諸侯的存在)之外,整個經濟層面也沒有準備就緒。和如此強大的騎兵軍隊打仗,中國歷史上在武帝以前基本沒什么經驗可取,在秦統一天下時,也發生過交戰雙方投入兵力近百萬的戰斗,但作為進攻者與防御者,均可就近抽調兵員和籌集物用,進攻戰線和雙方情況都比較明確,這和漢匈之戰是沒法相提并論的。

              匈奴少數民族全乃騎兵,來去急速如電,整個北部邊境線都可能成為戰線。這種作戰基本情況的變化使得以漢的強大,仍要忍氣吞聲達五代之久,當然這也是肅清國內封建力量、大力發展生產、繁殖增加馬匹數量、訓練騎兵的過程。

              擁有強勁步兵的國家不可能在短時期內轉變成騎兵強國。就像中國目前的建國之后的軍隊配置,尤其是1978年改革開放之后,不可能快速從陸軍國家轉變為海洋軍隊國家。

              與此相應的還有當年元朝軍隊進攻日本,在遇到日軍強烈的海上抵抗和臺風影響之后,后續進攻已經乏力——以當時全世界最為強大的騎兵,反而成為向海軍轉化并展開海上進攻的拖累!

              軍隊性質的轉化,牽涉一系列社會配套設施的轉型,最基本的經濟模式與政權模式的轉型——一個強大的陸地國家是不會也不能建設一支強大的海軍的,即使建立了,也不能持續。

              在武帝時,應時代要求,涌現了一大批優秀的將士,有著卓越指揮才能的衛青、霍去病,有著非凡毅力和高妙箭術的李廣將軍,以沉穩取勝的程不識將軍等等。同時逐漸擁有了一支強大的騎兵部隊與后勤供給系統。

              世上好戰者莫如游牧民族。由于地處年400㎜降水量線以北,那是天然的草地而不適于耕種,他們的食物主要賴于牛羊牲畜,由于長時間食肉和放牧,他們體格強健,弓馬嫻熟。但是游牧民族比農耕者更容易受到干旱的影響,如遇干旱,牛羊馬匹就會迅速降膘乃至餓死,而在嚴寒的冬季還會有大匹牲畜凍死。由于天災,他們的生計受到嚴重威脅,就對周邊進行掠奪,如果此時有一個強有力的“共主”,他們簡直就如同猛虎下山一般,勢不可當。即使在水草豐茂的時間里,他們亦會由于對未知天災的擔心而伺機掠搶以備后患。

              武帝與匈奴的戰爭持續了數十年,當時的漢朝以華夏民族有史以來最大的民間經濟力量、最強的兵力,最為緊湊堅固的社會結構(由權力集中的皇權機構統攝著強大的、整肅的以自給自足為單元的自給自足的民間經濟),與人口僅是漢人口幾十分之一的匈奴(無論匈奴族還是蒙古族最多是也不過100多萬,而武帝時人口達到6000萬),在幾十年戰爭期間互有折損,最后拼得兩敗俱傷。下面我們就簡要分析游牧民族與定居耕田民族在戰斗時雙方的優勢利弊。

              游牧民族居無定所,覓草而移,全部家當,幾匹馬便可馱走,戰事一起,成年男子均可立即上馬操弓,武器就是平時謀生的工具,隨招隨到,戰完即散,平常生活與戰時無多大區別。他們幾乎是天然的戰士,亦幾乎不太需要后勤、軍輜。由于地處年400㎜降水量線以北,惡劣的氣候因素培養了他們堅忍不拔的毅力與好戰的性格,加上長期食肉,形成了強悍的體格,自幼培養的精湛騎技和野外生存能力是定居者無法逾越的,游牧民族的馬匹眾多而精良,而這又是定居者的一大弱項,由于生活使然,定居耕田地區的馬匹稀少,并且力短而駑鈍。在少數民族戰爭中,戰場繳獲的所有權基本屬于獲得者,這更刺激了他們好戰的天性,在漢軍當中,戰場所獲須上交以重新分配。這種區別是由雙方的經濟與生活模式決定的。

              一句話,從單人單騎來說,少數民族有著天然的優勢。下面,我們從社會結構層面作一比較。

              少數民族大規模的統一使得他們的社會本就是一支強大的騎兵——去除婦孺老幼即可,在單于之下,有眾多部落,各部落內部有共同的習俗、信仰和一定的緣親關系。所以在戰場上,部隊一般按部落劃分,這種社會結構擁有動員、組織人力快捷而迅速的特點,但是各部落容易產生害怕自己力量損傷而被吞并的擔心,所以有對單于的命令陽奉陰違的情況,這種狀況在少數民族是常有的事,在戰場上全靠單于或可汗的權術和制衡,即使能吞并一個部落也時有這個部落在短時期反叛的事情發生,他們不愿輕易拋棄原有的緣親關系和習慣風俗。畢竟在歷史上,少數民族從形式上的統一到思想上的融合統一情況并不多見,這樣就為定居民族軍隊的留下進攻的隙口。

              從陸地定居民族(匈奴是陸地游牧民族)的角度來看,漢武帝時,形成了空前堅固夯實的中央集權社會結構(皇帝完全集權、民間的自給自足經濟發展的很好,國家整體力量凝聚而強大),動員、組織人力、物力也相當容易,但是卻遠遠不及少數民族。

              武帝時期形成的大一統集權社會,保證了武帝能直接、快速向低層建構的以各自耕農戶為主的經濟單元抽調賦稅與組織人力,具體由中央政府與各官員保障執行。從理想來說,如此的社會結構應該說盡善盡美了,而實際卻大有出入

              武帝時人口已達6000萬之多,但是這6000萬人口是否比較均勻地分攤到了土地,是否可以均充地抽調賦稅,這方面的史料不多,但是根據各種現象的分析,當時并不能十分有效地抽稅。為了迎戰匈奴,漢建立了一支強大的騎兵部隊,最多時騎兵總數可能達到二三十萬,并有一支人數極其龐大的步兵,總數將近百萬。軍備開支相當之大,當二三十萬軍隊開到長城附近迎敵時,后勤的補給線增長,從全國抽調的糧草送達前線時,半路的耗費遠遠超過了實際送到的數目,并且運輸隊還要攜帶返程的糧草,如果要送到已深入敵境千里的作戰部隊手中,耗費更其巨大。64石糧食只有一石能到達前線!此語出自司馬遷。戰事一起,為之直接服務的民夫達百萬之多,在運輸條件不便的偏遠地區運糧到幾千里的前線似乎不太現實,但仍得執行中央命令。運輸條件便利的地區則要負擔沉重一些,已出兵役、民力的農戶很可能還要承擔賦稅。這樣,偏遠地區要征收一次賦稅,一般額量上要遠遠大于便利地區,而在都城或前線附近地區則在遞交賦稅的次數上明顯多于偏遠地區,于是,全國的稅制便會發生紊亂。這種現象在全國不能統一劃價和通幣流行的舊社會普遍存在,只是一有較大戰事和工程建設、賑災活動時,矛盾更加凸顯。

              在武帝與匈奴戰爭期間,財政嚴重短缺,政府不得不在農業稅之外籌集財物,于是出現了鹽、鐵的政府專營專利現象,桑弘羊,孔僅和東郭咸陽等極盡理財之能,當時行舟許可稅,商人資產稅,甚至有了出錢贖罪緩刑之舉。

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