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          2. 歡迎訪問中國歷史網!微信公眾號:

            書摘馬鈴薯瘟疫:土豆如何引發世界歷史的震蕩?

            時間:2019-06-18 00:53:00編輯:佚名

              由于大饑荒和移民潮,如今愛爾蘭本國的人口不過400多萬,反倒是在新大陸的后裔人丁興旺。時至今日,在美國3億人口中,愛爾蘭裔美國人就有5500萬,僅次于德裔美國人。來到美國的愛爾蘭移民篳路藍縷,一步步融入了美國主流社會,先后出了肯尼迪、尼克松、里根和克林頓4位總統,逃荒的老祖宗們恐怕想不到爭氣的后代還有讓昔日騎在頭上的唐寧街主人卑躬屈膝的這一天。甚至奧巴馬出訪歐洲時也不忘湊趣赴愛爾蘭展開“尋根之旅”,因為他的曾曾曾外祖父就是在“馬鈴薯瘟疫”期間去了美國。

              隨著愛爾蘭人的到來,讓他們愛恨交加的馬鈴薯也登上了新大陸的土地,同樣贏得了當地人的青睞,至今在美國的一些地方如新罕布爾州,還是把土豆稱為“愛爾蘭薯”(Irish potato)。到了20世紀20年代,隨著馬鈴薯自動削皮機的發明,馬鈴薯片從小規模制作變成銷售量最大的零食。一個美國南方的旅行推銷員赫爾曼·萊(Herman Lay)幫助推廣了這種食品。他帶著皮箱在美國南部的雜貨店叫賣此機器,之后他更創立了公司,令他的名字“樂事”(Lay’s)幾乎成為馬鈴薯片的同義詞。從20世紀60年代開始,通過遍布世界的麥當勞連鎖店,馬鈴薯片開始流行起來。在大眾眼里,麥當勞的“薯片”已經與硅谷的“芯片”、好萊塢的“大片”一起,成了美國文化軟實力的標志;而在抱怨人們情愿放棄美味可口但制作復雜的法國大餐去吃麥當勞,然后利用空余時間去逛街的法國人眼中,薯片更是儼然貼上了美國“文化帝國主義”的標簽。

              但這并不是馬鈴薯與政治第一次“結緣”。老一輩的中國人都很熟悉毛主席詩詞中的那句“還有吃的,土豆燒熟了,再加牛肉。不須放屁,試看天地翻覆”(《念奴嬌·鳥兒問答》)。諷刺的是,那位在聯合國大會上都能夠脫下皮鞋猛敲桌子的赫魯曉夫,于1964年4月1日在匈牙利一個工廠發表的一次演說中,把“福利”說成是“一盤土豆燒牛肉的好菜”。在那個時代,中國人心目中的,起碼也是“樓上樓下、電燈電話”,怎么能夠幾顆土豆再加幾塊牛肉就打發了呢!于是,中國的文章嚴厲抨擊了這種“土豆燒牛肉”的“假”。

              只是,如今看來,這仿佛就是一個愚人節玩笑,土豆簡直是“躺著中槍”。赫魯曉夫的原話是“到了,匈牙利人就可以經常吃到‘古拉西’了”。所謂“古拉西”(goulash,來自馬扎爾語的“香草”gulya)是一道匈牙利名菜,即把牛肉和土豆加上紅辣椒及其他調料在小陶罐子里燉得爛爛的,汁水濃濃的,然后澆在米飯上,很好吃,對應到中國菜里可能也是西湖醋魚之類的美味。誰知翻譯到中國報紙上,因為“古拉西”沒有合適的譯法,先是寫成“洋山芋燒牛肉”,然后改成了“土豆燒牛肉”,堂堂國菜淪為地攤小吃不說,還變成“中蘇論戰”的話題之一,在歷史長河中翻起了小小浪花。

              這就是馬鈴薯,印第安人對全人類的饋贈。因為養活了更多的人而改變了整個世界,也由于養不活人而改變了世界;作為食物傳遍了世界,又在政治宣傳中為全世界所知……如同美國知名環境史學家W.H.麥克尼爾(William H. McNeill)所說:“馬鈴薯改變了世界歷史,這并非荒唐事……我們習以為常的食物,是如何以劇烈的方式改變了世界歷史。”

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